Turkmenistan continued its strong economic performance driven mainly by hydrocarbon-led export and surge in public investments in 2012. According to the ADB’s “Asian Development Outlook 2012 Update”, exports in Turkmenistan grew by 44.7%. IMF projected real GDP growth of Turkmenistan to remain at about 8 per cent in 2012-13 and inflation in single digit. The country was classified as an upper middle-income country with GNI per capita of $4,800 (Atlas methods, 2011) by World Bank in October 2012.
Since 2007, Turkmenistan has been implementing reforms in economic sectors and political areas. Turkmenistan adopted a new version of the Constitution in September 2008. Turkmenistan’s legislation is being reviewed in line with its international treaty obligations, including in the area of the rule of law and protection of human rights. A new Party of Entrepreneurs and Industrialists was established following the adoption of a new law on political parties. Turkmenistan opened five human rights resource centres mainly at the tertiary educational institutes in four provinces and at the National Institute for Democracy and Human Rights in the capital city to provide better access to citizens on human rights related literature.
Turkmenistan introduced a Notional Defined Contribution (NDC) pension system (replacing the previous pay-as-you-go system) and the Pension Fund in early 2012. According to the Government of Turkmenistan, 75% of the 2012 national budget was allocated to the implementation of the National Programme (2007- 2020) on Improving Social and Living Conditions of People. This rate of social expenditures is also stated by ADB. Turkmenistan's Human Development Index in 2013 is 0.698, which gives the country a rank of 102 out of 186 countries.
Turkmenistan approved its first National Climate Change Strategy in June 2012 which lays out the policy framework for building climate resilience and low emission economy in Turkmenistan. The strategy stipulates a number of sector-tailored measures to ensure mitigation and adaptation response from the key economic areas, such as oil and gas, power engineering, construction, water, agriculture and the like. The adoption of this strategy signals that Turkmenistan is eager to make its economy greener have less carbon emissions and become more resource efficient. The second National Climate Change Strategy was adopted in 2019.
Turkmenistan has been active in some global and regional development issues in recent years. Turkmenistan was elected member of the UN Commission on Population and Development for the period of 2012-2015, to the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs for the period of 2012-2015, and to the Executive Committee of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees on continuing basis. Turkmenistan is the Chair of UN Special Programme for the Economies of Central Asia (UNSPECA) for 2012 and Vice-Chair of the UN Economic Commission for Europe until 2015. In 2013, the UN General Assembly elected Turkmenistan to ECOSOC for 2013-2015.
Turkmenistan, as one of the major oil and natural gas producers, is a leading advocate developing an appropriate international legal framework for security of energy transit system.
Turkmenistan has developed and presented its First National Voluntary Review in July 2019 covering SDGs 3, 4, 8, 10, 13, 16 and 17
Data presented below is extracted from the VNR, HDR 2020 and UNDP Turkmenistan CO publication 2020.